WATER SAFETY IN THE GREATER MEKONG REGION
Climate impact indicators
Global essential climate variables/indicators used
We used satellite daily precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, topography Digital elevation model (DEM), soil moisture, river flow and C3S future scenarios (early century - 2011-2040, mid-century - 2041-2070, and end-century - 2071-2100).
Regional/local indicators used and produced
We used ground observation datas for daily precipitation, daily temperature, soil types and daily river discharge. Some region/local indicators used and produced are droughts (agricultural and hydrological); floods (return period of high flows); Water runoff or discharge, e.g. annual, monthly or daily: max., min., mean; precipitation (annual, monthly, or daily max., min., mean; short-duration extreme precipitation. And, flood and drought risks are produced for the study area.
Global data to regional/local scale
Step 1: Satellite data and local ground data collection. These information include: topography, soil type, daily precipitation, daily temperature, river discharge, evapotranspiration, population density, water demand, infrastructures and management rule, drought and flood indicators.
Step 2: From C3S future scenarios and data collection from step 1, setting up HYPE hydrological model. This step includes sub-basin setting up, model calibration, validation and accuracy assessment. Accuracy assessment coefficients used from Root Mean Square Error, Nash – Sutcliffe efficiency, and Kling – Gupta Efficiency.
Step 3: From hydrological model simulation of C3S Global Service contract with reference period from 1971-2000, times series essential climate variables different 30-year periods, such as early century (2011-2040), mid-century (2041-2070) and end-century (2071-2100) will be extracted.
Step 4: Climate Impact Indicators:
- Global ECV/Indicators used: Soil moisture and river flow; Daily river flow and local/regional thresholds; daily surface flow; daily precipitation at 2m
- Regional/Local indicators used and produced: Droughts (agricultural and hydrological); floods (return period of high flows); Water runoff or discharge, e.g. annual, monthly or daily: max., min., mean; precipitation (annual, monthly, or daily max., min., mean; short-duration extreme precipitation
Step 5: Flood and Drought risk: This step provides hazard risk assessment of the area based on analysis result. This will help decision makers to adopt the required measures in order to reduce the flood and drought risk in the area.