BIODIVERSITY OF TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS IN COSTA RICA
Climate impact indicators
Global essential climate variables/indicators used
Annual precipitation and temperature are used for calculation of the Holdridge Life Zones as a biodiversity indicator. The previously derived land-use biodiversity indicators were developed based on a protocol used by our partners GIZ/SINAC.
Regional/local indicators used and produced
Basic downscaled and bias-adjusted climatologies of monthly precipitation and temperature with climate change projections were developed at the local scale using a nation-wide 1km2 grid. We used three periods from 1971 to 2000 (reference period), from 2001 to 2018 (observed climate change) and from 2019 to 2040 (future projection, RCP 4.5). The biodiversity indicators based on land-use (fragmentation, % land use change) were linked to calculated Holdridge Life Zones, which depend on climate data. The projection of the Holdridge Life Zones then provided information on future scenarios of how species associated to the life zones potentially move in relation to protected areas and biological corridors.
Quality control was done through periodic meetings (on average every 3 months) monitoring the production of results in combination with local data that were incorporated into the workflow. Because of Costa Rica's relatively sparse monitoring network, basic indicators like temperature and precipitation can add significant value to locally calculated results.
Global data to regional/local scale
Step 1: Bias adjusted data (CMIP5 ensemble bias-corrected to Hydro-GFD at 50km) from the C3S_422_Lot1_SMHI contract and available in the CDS catalogue, were downloaded.
Step 2: Precipitation and temperature climatologies purely based on local interpolated (dynamic multiple linear regression model) station data (annual and monthly) were produced. These data were used to further downscale data from step1 as a higher resolution was needed for the study.
Step 3: Land-use based biodiversity indicators were calculated for the national biocorridor program of our partners.
Step 4: An updated national Holdridge Life Zone (HLZ) ecosystem classification as a biodiversity indicator with potential link to species distribution based on the local climatologies generated under step1 was calculated.
Step 5: Land-use based biodiversity indicators on a national scale with updated Holdridge life zones were merged. These indicators were projected into the climate change impact period until 2040 to assess changes in relation to protected areas.